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  • Ranbir Singh Atwal

Bhutan: The World's First Carbon Negative Oasis

In an era where the spector of climate change looms large, the tiny Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan emerges as a beacon of environmental stewardship, being the world's first and only carbon negative country. This remarkable achievement is not just a testament to Bhutan's commitment to sustainability but also sets a profound example for the global community on harmonising nature conservation with development. Let's delve into how Bhutan achieved this extraordinary feat and what lessons the world can learn from this green oasis.



A Carbon Negative Marvel

Bhutan's journey to becoming carbon negative is rooted in its unique approach to governance and development, guided by the philosophy of Gross National Happiness (GNH). This holistic development framework emphasises environmental conservation, sustainable socio-economic development, preservation of culture, and good governance. As a result, Bhutan has implemented rigorous environmental policies that have not only preserved its pristine landscapes but also turned the country into a net carbon sink.


The Numbers Behind the Negative

The figures that underscore Bhutan's carbon negative status are truly remarkable. The country generates around 3 million tons of CO2 annually, yet its forests absorb over 6 million tons of CO2, effectively doubling the amount of CO2 it removes from the atmosphere compared to what it emits. This incredible balance is maintained through a constitutionally mandated policy that requires at least 60% of Bhutan's land to remain under forest cover; currently, over 70% of the country is forested.


Renewable Energy: The Wind Beneath Bhutan's Wings

Bhutan's energy needs are almost entirely met by hydropower, a clean, renewable resource that harnesses the power of the country's abundant river systems. With a hydropower capacity of over 2,000 megawatts, which is significantly more than the country's domestic demand, Bhutan exports the surplus electricity to neighbouring countries, further offsetting carbon emissions by reducing the need for fossil fuels in the region.


A Green Economic Model

Bhutan's economic model is intricately linked to its environmental policies. The sale of hydropower electricity to India is a major source of revenue, demonstrating how environmental sustainability can drive economic prosperity. Furthermore, Bhutan invests heavily in sustainable agriculture, eco-tourism, and conservation projects, creating a green economy that benefits both people and the planet.


Global Lessons from Bhutan's Green Leadership

Bhutan's carbon negative status is a clarion call to the world, proving that sustainable development and environmental preservation are not only achievable but also beneficial for national well-being. Bhutan shows that small countries can have a big impact on the global stage, offering valuable lessons in:

  • The importance of national policies that prioritize the environment. The potential of renewable energy to meet development needs sustainably. The role of conservation and sustainable land use in combating climate change. The value of integrating traditional knowledge and practices in modern conservation efforts.

The Path Forward: Bhutan's Green Blueprint

As the world grapples with the urgent need to reduce carbon emissions and combat climate change, Bhutan stands as a shining example of what is possible when a nation commits wholeheartedly to environmental stewardship. The kingdom's success in achieving carbon negativity provides a blueprint for other countries to follow, highlighting the importance of policy, conservation, and renewable energy in creating a sustainable future.

Bhutan's status as the world's first carbon negative country is not just an environmental achievement; it's a powerful statement on the global stage about the feasibility and benefits of living in harmony with nature. As we look to the future, Bhutan's green journey offers hope and inspiration, reminding us that with collective will and concerted action, we can forge a sustainable path for our planet.

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